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      當前位置: 首頁 > 中級經濟師 > 中級經濟師備考資料 > 2019年中級經濟師考試工商考點技術創新含義、類型與過程

      2019年中級經濟師考試工商考點技術創新含義、類型與過程

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      發布時間:2019年06月10日 13:07:25 來源:環球網校 點擊量:

      【摘要】環球網校分享了 "2019年中級經濟師考試工商考點技術創新含義、類型與過程 ",以下介紹了中級經濟師考試中級工商考點供大家參考,更多資料敬請關注環球網校中級經濟師考試頻道……

      相關推薦:2019年中級經濟師考試工商考點匯總

      第六章 技術創新管理

      第一節 技術創新含義、類型與過程

      一、技術創新的含義

      指企業家抓住市場潛在盈利機會,以獲取經濟利益為目的的,重組生產條件和要素,不斷研制出新產品、新工藝、新技術,以獲得市場認同的一個綜合性過程。

      主要特點:

      (一)技術創新是經濟行為

      研究開發包括基礎研究、應用研究和實驗開發三種活動,他們的主體是科學家、發明家、工程師等

      創新是一種經濟行為,核心是企業家,目的是獲得利潤。

      (二)技術創新是一種高風險的活動

      在風險類型上,技術創新屬于投機風險

      (三)技術創新時間的差異性

      發展性開發一般需要2-3年,應用性技術開發需要5年左右,基礎性開發需要8-10年左右

      (四)外部性

      由于技術的非自愿擴散,促進了周圍的技術和生產力水平的提高的現象,如對于創新成果的無償模仿等。

      (五)一體化與國際化

      1、一體化

      企業外部:產、學、研形成一體化,實現優勢互補

      企業內部:技術開發部門與生產現場及質量管理和銷售部門形成一體化

      2、國際化:

      國際性、地區性的機構合作趨勢增強;技術開發機構的多國籍化

      二、技術創新的類型

      (一)產品創新和工藝創新

      根據技術創新的對象分,可以分為產品創新和工藝創新

      1、產品創新

      建立在產品整體概念上以市場為基礎導向的系統工程,是功能創新、形式創新、服務創新多維交織的組合創新。

      分為:重大(全新)產品的創新和漸進(改進)的產品創新

      2、工藝創新

      也稱過程創新,是產品的生產技術變革,包括新工藝、新設備和新組織管理方式。

      分為:重大工藝創新和漸進工藝創新

      3、產品創新和工藝創新的關系

      ①產品創新制造產品的差異化,工藝創新可以降低企業的成本

      ②工藝創新相對系統,產品創新相對獨立

      ③工藝創新通常伴隨著組織結構和管理系統的重大變革,產品創新一般是獨立于組織系統實施的

      ④產品創新向市場提供產品,工藝創新只在少數情況下面向市場

      ⑤產品創新的成本費用通過銷售收入得到補償,工藝創新的成本多數情況是通過折舊、生產率提高得到補償

      ⑥在產品的生命周期,二者的作用變化不同(如圖)


      ⑦產品創新和工藝創新存在著一定的依賴性和交互性

      (二)原始創新、集成創新和引進消化吸收再創新

      根據創新模式的不同,分為原始創新、集成創新和引進消化吸收再創新

      1、原始創新

      主要集中在基礎科學和前沿技術領域

      2、集成創新

      集成創新的主體是企業,所應用的技術都是已經存在的

      3、引進、消化吸收再創新

      是最常見、最基本的創新形式,核心概念是利用各種引進的技術資源,在消化吸收的基礎上完成重大創新。

      4、三者之間的關系

      三者是自主創新的三個有機組成部分,也是一個必然發展的過程。

      環球網校提供“ 免費預約短信提醒”會及時為大家推送2019年各地區經濟師報名時間提醒!

      小編分享的“2019年中級經濟師考試工商考點技術創新含義、類型與過程”供大家參考,以下小編整理了中級經濟師備考資料、歷年真題供大家免費下載,點擊以下“資料下載”注冊即可免費得哦……

      分享到: 編輯:劉洋

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