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      發布時間:2019年06月10日 16:18:13 來源:環球網校 點擊量:

      【摘要】2019年一級造價工程師考試正在火熱備考階段,為了幫助大家順利備考2019年一級造價工程師考試,環球網校小編搜集整理了“2019年一級造價工程師《土建工程》考點:特種混凝土”供大家學習參考,希望對你有所幫助。

      知識點:特種混凝土

      1.高性能混凝土

      高性能混凝土(High Performance Concrete,簡稱HPC)是一種新型高技術混凝土。《高性能混凝土應用技術規程》(CECS207-2006)對高性能混凝土的定義為:采用常規材料和工藝生產,具有混凝土結構所要求的各項力學性能,具有高耐久性、高工作性和高體積穩定性的混凝土。這種混凝土特別適用于高層建筑,橋梁以及暴露在嚴酷環境中的建筑物。

      (1)特性

      1)自密實性好。高性能混凝土的用水量較低,流動性好,抗離析性高,具有較優異的填充性。因此,配合比恰當的大流動性高性能混凝土有較好的自密實性。

      2)體積穩定性。

      3)強度高。高性能混凝土的抗壓強度已超過200MPa。28d平均強度介于100——120MPa的高性能混凝土已在工程中應用。

      4)水化熱低。由于高性能混凝土的水灰比較低,會較早的終止水化反應,因此,水化熱相應的降低。

      5)收縮量小。高性能混凝土的總收縮量與其強度成反比,強度越高總收縮量越小。

      6)徐變少。高性能混凝土的徐變變形顯著低于普通混凝土,高性能混凝土與普通強度混凝土相比較,高性能混凝土的徐變總量(基本徐變與干燥徐變之和)有顯著減少。

      7)耐久性好。高性能混凝土除通常的抗凍性、抗滲性明顯高于普通混凝土之外,高性能混凝土的Cl—滲透率明顯低于普通混凝土。

      8)耐高溫(火)差。高性能混凝土在高溫作用下會產生爆裂、剝落。

      (2)制備高性能混凝土的技術途徑

      單方高性能混凝土用水量不宜大于175kg/m3。膠凝材料總量宜為450——600kg/m3,其中礦物微細粉用量不宜超過膠凝材料總量的30%。

      1)選用優質的、符合要求的水泥和粗細集料。

      2)選用高效減水劑。高性能混凝土中使用的外加劑必須符合GB8076《混凝土外加劑》和GB50119《混凝土外加劑應用技術規程》的規定,并對混凝土及鋼筋無害。

      3)選用微細粉。選用具有一定潛在活性或者火山灰活性的礦物摻合料,如硅粉、粉煤灰、磨細礦渣粉、天然沸石粉、偏高嶺土粉及復合微細粉等。所選用礦物微細粉必須對混凝土及鋼筋無害并滿足相關質量標準與技術規程的要求。

      4)改善混凝土的施工工藝。

      2.高強混凝土

      高強度混凝土是用普通水泥、砂石作為原料,采用常規制作工藝,主要依靠高效減水劑,或同時外加一定數量的活性礦物摻和料,使硬化后強度等級不低于C60的混凝土。

      1)高強混凝土的優點

      ①高強混凝土可減少結構斷面,降低鋼筋用量,增加房屋使用面積和有效空間,減輕地基負荷。

      ②高強混凝土致密堅硬,其抗滲性、抗凍性、耐蝕性、抗沖擊性等諸方面性能均優于普通混凝土。

      ③對預應力鋼筋混凝土構件,高強混凝土由于剛度大、變形小,故可以施加更大的預應力和更早地施加預應力,以及減少因徐變而導致的預應力損失。

      2)高強混凝土的不利條件

      ①高強混凝土容易受到施工各環節中環境條件的影響,所以對其施工過程的質量管理水平要求高。

      ②高強混凝土的延性比普通混凝土差。

      (2)高強混凝土的物理力學性能

      1)抗壓性能。

      2)早期與后期強度。高強混凝土的水泥用量大,早期強度發展較快,特別是加入高效減水劑促進水化,早期強度更高,早期強度高的后期增長較小,摻高效減水劑的混凝土后期強度增長幅度要低于沒有摻減水劑的混凝土。

      3)抗拉強度。混凝土的抗拉強度雖然隨著抗壓強度的提高而提高,但它們之間的比值卻隨著強度的增加而降低。

      4)收縮。

      5)耐久性。混凝土的耐久性包括抗滲性、抗凍性、耐磨性及抗侵蝕性等。

      (3)對高強混凝土組成材料的要求

      3.輕骨料混凝土

      輕骨料混凝土是用輕粗骨料、輕細骨料(或普通砂)和水泥配制而成的干表觀密度小于1950kg/m3的混凝土。節約能源。

      (1)輕骨料混凝土的分類

      1)按干表觀密度及用途分為:保溫輕骨料混凝土,干表觀密度等級≤0.8t/m3;結構保溫輕骨料混凝土,干表觀密度等級為0.8——1.4t/m3;結構輕骨料混凝土,干表觀密度等級為1.4——2.0t/m3。

      (2)輕骨料混凝土的物理力學性質。

      ①強度等級。

      ②表觀密度。

      ③耐久性。

      ④輕骨料混凝土的彈性模量比普通混凝土低20%——50%,保溫隔熱性能較好,導熱系數相當于燒結普通磚的導熱系數,約0.28——0.87W/(m·K)。

      4.多孔混凝土

      (1)加氣混凝土

      加氣混凝土是以硅質材料(砂、粉煤灰及含硅尾礦等)和鈣質材料(石灰、水泥)為主要原料,摻加發氣劑(鋁粉),通過配料、攪拌、澆注、預養、切割、蒸壓、養護等工藝過程制成的輕質多孔硅酸鹽制品。

      加氣混凝土具有如下優點:

      1)質輕:孔隙達70%——85%,體積密度一般為500——900kg/m3,為普通混凝土的1/5,黏土磚的1/4,空心磚的1/3,與木質差不多,能浮于水。

      2)保溫、隔音:由于材料內部具有大量的氣孔和微孔,因而有良好的保溫隔熱性能。導熱系數為0.11——0.16W/MK,是粘土磚的1/4——1/5。

      3)抗震、耐久:加氣混凝土耐久性和抗震性能優于普通混凝土。

      (2)泡沫混凝土

      凡在配制好的含有膠凝物質的料漿中加入泡沫而形成多孔的坯體,并經養護形成的多孔混凝土,稱為泡沫混凝土。

      (3)大孔混凝土

      大孔混凝土指無細骨料的混凝土,按其粗骨料的種類,可分為普通無砂大孔混凝土和輕骨料大孔混凝土兩類。普通大孔混凝土是用碎石、卵石、重礦渣等配制而成。

      大孔混凝土適用于制做墻體小型空心砌塊、磚和各種板材,也可用于現澆墻體。普通大孔混凝土還可制成濾水管、濾水板等,廣泛用于市政工程。

      5.防水混凝土

      實現混凝土自防水的技術途徑有以下幾個方面:

      (1)提高混凝土的密實度

      (2)改善混凝土內部孔隙結構。在混凝土中摻入適量引氣劑或引氣減水劑,可以形成大量封閉微小氣泡,這些氣泡相互獨立,既不滲水,又使水路變得曲折、細小、分散,可顯著提高混凝土的抗滲性。

      6.碾壓混凝土

      碾壓混凝土是由級配良好的骨料、較低的水泥用量和用水量、較多的混合材料制成的超干硬性混凝土拌和物,經振動碾壓等工藝達到高密度、高強度的混凝土,是道路工程、機場工程和水利工程中性能好、成本低的新型混凝土材料。

      (1)對碾壓混凝土組成材料的要求

      ①骨料。

      ②混合材料。

      ③水泥。

      (2)碾壓混凝土的特點

      ①內部結構密實、強度高。

      ②干縮性小、耐久性好。

      ③節約水泥、水化熱低。特別適用于大體積混凝土工程。

      7.纖維混凝土

      纖維混凝土是以混凝土為基體,外摻各種纖維材料而成,摻入纖維的目的是提高混凝土的抗拉強度與降低其脆性。纖維的品種有高彈性模量纖維(如鋼纖維、碳纖維、玻璃纖維等)和低彈性模量纖維(如尼龍纖維、聚丙烯纖維)兩類。

      大量材料性能和工程結構試驗證明,纖維混凝土對增強混凝土早期抗拉強度,防止早期由沉陷、水化熱、干縮而產生的內蘊微裂紋,減少表現裂縫和開裂寬度,增強混凝土的防滲性能、抗磨損抗沖擊性能及增強結構整體性有顯著作用。

      8.聚合物混凝土

      聚合物混凝土是由有機聚合物、無機膠凝材料、集料有效結合而形成的一種新型混凝土材料的總稱。它是混凝土與聚合物的復合材料,克服了普通混凝土抗拉強度低、脆性大、易開裂、耐化學腐蝕性差等缺點,擴大了混凝土的使用范圍,是國內大力研究和發展的新型混凝土。

      以上內容是環球網校一級造價工程師考試頻道為您整理的"2019年一級造價工程師《土建工程》考點:特種混凝土",希望對你有所幫助!2019年一級造價工程師考試報名預計8月份開始,為了避免錯過報名時間,你可以 免費預約短信提醒

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